An Introduction to Reinforcement Learning

updated 29 Sep 2023

Reinforcement learning is a machine learning paradigm where an agent learns to make decisions by interacting with an environment. The agent receives feedback in the form of rewards or penalties based on its actions, allowing it to adapt and improve over time. The goal is for the agent to learn a policy, a strategy or set of rules, that maximizes its cumulative rewards in various situations. Reinforcement learning is commonly applied in scenarios such as game playing, robotics, and autonomous systems, where the agent must navigate an environment and make sequential decisions to achieve optimal outcomes.

An Introduction to Reinforcement Learning

What is Reinforcement Learning

  1. Demo Overview: The speaker begins by describing a demo where a robot performs various tasks in a living room, seemingly autonomously. However, it's later revealed that the robot's actions were entirely remote-controlled by a human operator.

  2. Software Challenge in Robotics: The main takeaway from the demo is that physically capable robots exist, but embedding them with the intelligence to perform tasks is a software challenge, not a hardware problem.

  3. Introduction to Reinforcement Learning (RL): The speaker introduces reinforcement learning as a subfield in machine learning. RL is presented as a promising direction for achieving intelligent robotic behavior.

  4. Supervised Learning vs. RL: The most common machine learning approach is supervised learning, where the model is trained on input-output pairs. In the context of playing a game like Pong, supervised learning would involve training a neural network to imitate a human player based on a dataset of their gameplay.

  5. Downsides of Supervised Learning: There are two significant downsides to supervised learning. Firstly, creating a dataset for training can be challenging. Secondly, if the model is trained to imitate a human player, it can never surpass the skill level of that human player.

The speaker seems to be advocating for reinforcement learning as a more promising approach to training intelligent agents, particularly in scenarios where supervised learning has limitations.

Learning without Explicit Examples

  1. Learning Without Explicit Examples: The speaker discusses the limitation of supervised learning, where explicit examples are required. In the absence of a dataset with target labels, the question arises if there's a way for an agent to learn to play a game entirely by itself.

  2. Introduction to Reinforcement Learning (RL): Reinforcement learning is introduced as a solution to learning without explicit examples. The framework in RL is similar to supervised learning, with an input frame, a neural network model (called the policy network), and an output action (up or down).

  3. Policy Gradients: The method explained for training the policy network is called policy gradients. The process starts with a random network. The network produces random actions, and through interactions with the game engine, the loop continues. The agent explores the environment randomly, aiming to discover better rewards and behavior.

  4. Feedback and Rewards: The only feedback given to the agent is the scoreboard in the game. Scoring a goal results in a reward of +1, while the opponent scoring deducts a penalty of -1. The goal of the agent is to optimize its policy to maximize rewards.

  5. Training Process: To train the policy network, a bunch of experiences are collected by running game frames through the network and selecting random actions. Despite initially losing most games, the agent might get lucky and discover actions leading to positive rewards.

  6. Policy Gradients in Training: For every episode, positive or negative reward, gradients are computed to make future actions more or less likely. Positive rewards increase the probability of actions, while negative rewards decrease the likelihood. This filtering process helps the agent learn to play the game over time.

  7. Recommended Reading: The speaker suggests reading the blog post "Pong from Pixels" by Andrej Karpathy for a more detailed understanding of reinforcement learning.

The speaker emphasizes that the agent, through policy gradients, learns from experience to improve its gameplay in the absence of explicit examples.

Main Challenges When doing Reinforcement Learning

  1. Challenges in Reinforcement Learning (RL): While RL, specifically using policy gradients, is a powerful method for training agents, there are significant downsides.

  2. Credit Assignment Problem: The credit assignment problem arises when an agent receives a negative reward at the end of an episode. Policy gradients assume that all actions in the episode were bad, leading to a reduction in the likelihood of those actions in the future. This is a challenge in cases where the agent performed well for most of the episode.

  3. Sparse Reward Setting: RL often faces a sparse reward setting, where rewards are given at the end of an entire episode rather than for individual actions. This leads to sample inefficiency, requiring extensive training time before useful behavior is learned.

  4. Comparison with Supervised Learning: The efficiency of computer vision in supervised learning is contrasted with the challenges of RL. Computer vision benefits from having a target label for every input frame, while RL grapples with the sparse reward setting.

  5. Extreme Cases: Extreme cases, such as the game Montezuma's Revenge or robotic control tasks with high action spaces, highlight the limitations of RL in situations where random exploration doesn't lead to rewards.

  6. Reward Shaping: The traditional approach to address sparse rewards is reward shaping, involving manually designing a reward function to guide the policy. However, this has downsides, including being custom for each environment and suffering from the alignment problem.

  7. Media Representation of RL: The speaker emphasizes the misleading representation of RL in media stories, clarifying that breakthroughs in AI are the result of hard engineering work by experts rather than a magical self-learning process.

  8. AI Safety Concerns: The video concludes with a note on the importance of AI safety research. Acknowledging potential risks in technologies like autonomous weapons and mass surveillance, the speaker emphasizes the need for international laws to keep up with technological progress.

Are the Robots Taking Over

  1. Media Representation: The speaker expresses the belief that the media tends to focus on the negative aspects of AI and robotics, possibly fueled by people's fear of the unknown. There's a suggestion that fear sells more advertisements than utopian views.

  2. Optimistic View on Technological Progress: The speaker personally believes that most, if not all, technological progress is beneficial in the long run. However, the caveat is that precautions need to be taken to prevent monopolies from using AI in a harmful way.

  3. Political Note: The speaker briefly mentions the influence of politics and suggests moving away from the topic for the current video.

  4. Future Content: The video serves as an introduction to deep reinforcement learning and outlines the challenging problems in the field. The speaker promises to delve into recent approaches addressing sample efficiency and sparse reward settings in the next video. Mentioned approaches include auxiliary or reward shaping, intrinsic curiosity, and hindsight experience replay.

  5. Acknowledgment to Supporters: The speaker expresses gratitude to those who have chosen to support them on Patreon, emphasizing the significance of such support and acknowledging that the videos are created in the speaker's spare time.

  6. Closing and Invitation: The video concludes with thanks for watching, an invitation to subscribe, and the anticipation of seeing the audience in the next episode of "Archived Insights."