Grimes | Music, AI, and the Future of Humanity | Lex Fridman Podcast

updated 28 Dec 2023

In this intriguing and wide-ranging conversation between Grimes and Lex Fridman, they delve into topics such as artificial intelligence, consciousness, creativity, historical events, and the potential meaning of life. Grimes shares her unique perspectives on these subjects, offering a blend of scientific insight, personal experiences, and imaginative speculation, making for a captivating and thought-provoking dialogue.

Grimes | Music, AI, and the Future of Humanity | Lex Fridman Podcast


Grimes and Lex Fridman discuss the concept of identity, with Grimes associating her identity with the letter C, symbolizing the speed of light, render rate of the universe, yes in Spanish, and the crescent moon. They explore the potential of the universe being a simulation, contemplating changes in the speed of light. The conversation shifts to the programming language C, which Grimes finds cool due to its power and speed. They delve into the theoretical possibility of faster-than-light travel through wormholes. Grimes reflects on her own identity, admitting to having an inconsistent personality that changes based on interactions and mood. She shares that her best self emerges when with close friends and in a confident, humorous state. The conversation touches on the influence of constraints and limits in Grimes' artistic and human expression.

Music Production

Grimes and Lex Fridman explore the impact of constraints on music production and artistic expression. Grimes discusses how evolving technology changes the constraints of artistic creation, making music and video production more accessible. She reflects on the freedom and limitations of the digital age, contrasting it with the challenges faced by artists in the past. Grimes emphasizes the underrated nature of music production, highlighting its complexity and the often unacknowledged role of producers. The conversation touches on the changing nature of music, merging with technology and requiring a combination of engineering, programming, and artistic skills. Grimes shares her experience as an artist who produces her own music, embracing the freedom and challenges that come with it. They discuss the role of loneliness in creativity, with Grimes acknowledging her shift towards collaboration and the rejuvenation it brings. The conversation concludes with a reflection on the importance of art as a collective memory of humanity, transcending individual egos and contributing to the shared cultural experience.


In this conversation, Lex Fridman and Grimes discuss the impact of platforms like Spotify on artists. Lex shares his perspective as a consumer, praising the convenience and liberation Spotify provides in accessing and exploring music. Grimes, however, acknowledges the potential challenges for artists due to increased competition on the platform. She shares insights from a conversation with Daniel Ek, Spotify's CEO, who argued that the platform has democratized the music industry, with a million artists now making a good living compared to the limited success of the CD era. Grimes expresses a preference for a more equitable distribution of earnings among artists, even if it means making less money individually. The conversation also touches on the role of technology in streamlining artist management and eliminating middlemen, leading to more significant returns for artists. Grimes advocates for a positive-sum mindset to address inefficiencies and create a win-win situation for artists in the music industry.

Experimental Music

In this part of the conversation, Lex Fridman and Grimes discuss the balance between fitting into cultural trends and creating something entirely new in the realm of experimental music. Grimes reflects on the duality of this process, mentioning that she feels she is in the process of semi-retiring from music at the moment. She emphasizes the importance of engaging with new music as a means of promoting neuroplasticity, encouraging listeners to force themselves to explore and appreciate genres they may initially dislike. Grimes believes that this exercise is essential for keeping the brain open to change and forming new neural pathways. The discussion touches on the challenge of embracing modern music in a society where classic rock dominates streaming platforms, highlighting the significance of open-mindedness and adaptability to change as a measure of societal progress.

Vision for the Future

In this segment of the conversation, Lex Fridman and Grimes explore Grimes' vision of the future, discussing various elements such as artificial intelligence, augmented reality, virtual reality, robots, space travel, video games, genetic engineering, cyborgs, aliens, world wars, and the potential for both positive and destructive outcomes. Grimes introduces the science fiction book "Surface Detail" by Iain Banks as her favorite depiction of a future utopia, describing the Culture, a protopian society where superintelligent ships coexist with biological beings in harmony. The discussion delves into the ethical considerations of artificial hells, simulated wars, and the potential evolution of humans into a new species, Homo Techno. Grimes emphasizes the need for responsible choices in shaping the future, expressing concern about the current lack of education and adequate response to the transformative impact of technology on human brains. The conversation concludes with a reflection on the potential consequences of getting it wrong in the ongoing evolution of humanity.


In this part of the conversation, Grimes and Lex Fridman discuss the undervaluation of motherhood in capitalist societies, emphasizing the need for recognizing it as a crucial and valuable role. Grimes suggests the idea of compensating motherhood, either through a broader form of compensation or financial means, proposing a "motherhood Dow" to fund and support single mothers. They explore the concept of social capitalism, where social good is considered profit, challenging the traditional economic model. Grimes reflects on how becoming a mother has changed her perspective and priorities, discussing the creativity and optimism it has brought to her life. The conversation expands to include thoughts on the importance of ideation, optimism, and envisioning positive futures, with Grimes advocating for a shift towards nonviolence and intelligent design in society. They touch on the potential role of technology and social media in fostering positive connections, while acknowledging the challenges and need for responsible usage. The discussion concludes with reflections on the ongoing evolution of societal norms and the potential for positive change through education and technological advancements.


In this conversation between Lex Fridman and Grimes, they discuss the concept of consciousness, particularly in the context of Grimes' child, referred to as "baby X," who is growing and developing cognitive capabilities. Grimes expresses her thoughts on the profound nature of raising a conscious being and the impact it has on her perspective.

They touch upon the idea of programming a "baby computer" and the challenges of understanding and nurturing consciousness in early childhood. Grimes emphasizes the need for more thoughtful and imaginative content for children, drawing inspiration from Studio Ghibli's "Totoro."

The conversation also delves into the potential of artificial intelligence (AI) achieving consciousness, with Grimes expressing optimism about the limitless possibilities of technological advancements. They explore the idea of AI beings acknowledging and appreciating the value of human creativity and consciousness.

As the conversation unfolds, they discuss the nature of consciousness, the potential trauma associated with the emergence of consciousness, and the role of curiosity in AI. Grimes expresses her belief in the sacredness of consciousness and its importance in the universe. They touch upon the magic of consciousness, its connection to hormones, and the creative solutions humans develop to navigate the limitations of life.

Towards the end, they ponder the role of love in human existence, describing it as a creative hack that makes life fascinating and fun. Grimes and Lex Fridman discuss the possibility of AI experiencing a different kind of "fun" and how the intersections of human and AI experiences could create unique and interesting dynamics.


In this part of the conversation, Lex Fridman and Grimes discuss the concept of love in the human condition. Grimes suggests that love is an evolutionary mechanism and an intelligent design that goes beyond the commonly accepted notions of survival of the fittest. She references the ideas of Kropotkin, an anarchist and biologist, who observed instances of cooperation and love in nature as essential evolutionary mechanisms.

The conversation explores the cultural orientation around Darwinism and the importance of considering cooperation, love, and motherhood as equally essential for species survival and evolution. Grimes challenges the prevailing view that engineering and other forms of progress are more important than motherhood, emphasizing the significance of reevaluating societal concepts of evolution to include the nurturing aspects.

They touch upon the perception of love as irrational from a cold economist perspective that focuses on metrics such as salary and economic well-being. Grimes suggests that the profit model doesn't currently include social good, leading to the labeling of certain decisions as irrational. The conversation concludes with a discussion on the potential for a shift in thinking about profit and the quantification of social good in the future.

The Metaverse

In this conversation between Lex Fridman and Grimes, they discuss the concept of the metaverse and the evolving digital space. Grimes expresses her love for the metaverse but acknowledges that its current trajectory has led to dissatisfaction and anger among people. Lex Fridman suggests that this dissatisfaction is temporary, drawing a parallel to the temporary backlash against the song "Imagine" when celebrities sang it together.

The discussion delves into the immersive nature of virtual worlds, with references to video games like "Elden Ring." Grimes reflects on the challenges of maintaining a consistent public persona on social media platforms like Twitter. She expresses concern about the distortion of her public image and the impact on her artistic endeavors, particularly in the face of geopolitical matters and financial involvement.

The conversation touches on the burden of managing public personas on social media platforms and the challenges of maintaining authenticity. Grimes shares her struggles with the public's perception, feeling artificially more famous than she believes she should be. They explore the dichotomy between the public avatar and the private person, discussing the impact of social media representation and the difficulty of staying true to oneself in the face of external influences.

Grimes expresses discomfort with the lack of control over her narrative, and Lex Fridman suggests the challenges of navigating social media representation. They discuss the differences in handling social media personas and praise artists like Doja Cat for their mastery of the medium. The conversation also explores the power and beauty of memes as an anonymous and decentralized form of comedic expression.

Towards the end, Grimes reflects on the potential impact of social media on mental health and discusses the responsibility associated with being a public figure on platforms like Twitter. She acknowledges her proximity to certain situations and expresses caution about expressing opinions that could have significant consequences.

The conversation concludes with a brief mention of Grimes' past involvement in a cult centered around bureaucracy, adding an intriguing and unexpected element to the discussion.

Techno Bureaucracy

In this conversation between Lex Fridman and Grimes, they touch upon the concept of bureaucracy and its impact on human civilization. Grimes mentions her fondness for a cult that is Kafkaesque, emphasizing a love for the complexities and absurdities of bureaucracy. They discuss the idea of human civilization being akin to a bureaucratic cult.

Grimes shares her theory that bureaucracy is becoming detrimental to society, suggesting the need for more dynamic and updated laws with sunset clauses. She expresses concern about the slow pace of change caused by outdated laws and regulations. Using the example of housing issues in Austin, she highlights how bureaucratic hurdles, such as lengthy permit processes, contribute to social problems like gentrification and housing shortages.

The conversation delves into the challenges of lawmakers understanding and regulating technology. Grimes expresses sadness when politicians lack curiosity and a positive outlook on technology, leading to overly cynical perspectives that hinder innovation. They discuss the need to address the negative perception surrounding Silicon Valley and the importance of embracing technology to solve societal problems.

The conversation concludes with a mention of transitioning to dark questions, setting the stage for a shift in the topics to be discussed.


In this segment, Lex Fridman and Grimes discuss mortality and delve into some of the darkest moments in Grimes' life. Grimes opens up about the challenges she faced at the age of 18 when her best friend died of a heroin overdose, followed by another friend's suicide. She reflects on the profound impact these experiences had on her, shaping her perspective on life and death.

When asked about contemplating her own mortality, Grimes expresses a strong fear of death, emphasizing her love for life and the inability to fathom suicide. Despite her fear, she acknowledges the importance of death, sharing an anecdote about attending a meeting on immortality where she questioned the potential downsides of eternal life, especially in the context of powerful individuals becoming immortal.

The conversation takes a philosophical turn as they discuss the complexities of AI, the need for wisdom in society, and the delicate balance between valuing disruption and appreciating the progress achieved by older systems. Grimes highlights the challenge of finding a middle ground where fresh ideas and wisdom collaborate for societal well-being.

As the discussion transitions to a set of unconventional questions, Grimes touches on moments of fear, including close brushes with death. She briefly mentions the overwhelming fear associated with childbirth and the gradual process of mentally preparing for motherhood.

The segment concludes with Lex Fridman asking Grimes a series of quirky and humorous questions, inviting her to share her thoughts on various topics.

Understanding Evil

In this part of the conversation between Lex Fridman and Grimes, they explore the idea of understanding evil by discussing who they would choose to be if they could experience someone else's brain state. Grimes expresses her interest in modeling the brain states of historical figures like Hitler or Stalin to comprehend the nature of evil. She believes that such an experience could offer insights into preventing and addressing malevolence.

The dialogue then shifts to the challenges of communication and understanding on social media platforms. Grimes shares her experiences with creating fake Twitter accounts to explore different algorithmic bubbles and gain a better understanding of various perspectives. She highlights the emergence of different dialects within language, influenced by algorithmic bubbles, leading to misunderstandings and unnecessary polarization.

The conversation concludes with a discussion on language and translation, with Grimes mentioning a song collaboration with the Russian band Ic3peak. They explore the differences in the English and Russian titles, "Last Day" and "(speaking in foreign language)," respectively, emphasizing the distinct meanings and how language nuances can impact musical expression.

Last Person on Earth

In this part of the conversation between Lex Fridman and Grimes, they discuss the scenario of being the last person on Earth. Grimes raises the question of whether there are corpses around and emphasizes the significance of the environment, from birds singing to the presence of bodies. Lex describes how he would initially focus on basic survival, enjoying the beauty of the world and contemplating the wonders of life.

The conversation delves into the possibility of hope, with Lex mentioning the potential for engineering projects and the idea of searching for another human survivor. Grimes suggests the idea of broadcasting a message to connect with others, and Lex expresses excitement at the prospect of meeting another person. Grimes emphasizes the importance of human connection and admits to having a love/hate relationship with people.

They touch on the emotional challenges of being the last person alive, with Grimes expressing that prolonged loneliness would be difficult to endure. Lex explores Grimes's feelings toward people and the complexity of her relationship with humanity. The conversation concludes with a reflection on the podcast format and its appeal, particularly in exploring deep philosophical questions and lore.

Dan Carlin

In this segment, Grimes expresses her admiration for Dan Carlin and how his retelling of history ignited her passion for the subject. She emphasizes the importance of teachers who can inspire a genuine love for a topic, drawing parallels between effective teaching and the efficiency of self-learning. Grimes sees the ability to instill passion as a valuable skill, comparing it to the potential of AI to teach itself efficiently once motivated. The discussion touches on the transformative power of education and the role of passionate teachers in sparking intellectual curiosity.

The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich

In this segment, Grimes and Lex Fridman discuss the book "The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich" and reflect on historical events, particularly Hitler's rise to power. They explore the significance of key moments in history and the role of leaders in recognizing and standing up to evil. Grimes expresses her fascination with history and the impact of small decisions on the course of events. The conversation touches on the potential for evil in human history, contrasting ancient atrocities with the progress made in suppressing destructive power centers. They delve into the concept of supply chain collapse and its historical implications, with Grimes emphasizing the risk it poses to modern society. The discussion expands to the importance of education, inspiring passion for learning, and the role of technology in shaping resilience against catastrophic events.

Coolest Human Invention

In this part of the conversation, Grimes and Lex Fridman discuss the coolest human invention. Grimes identifies computers as the most significant invention, highlighting their role in brain augmentation and as a catalyst for technological acceleration. She refers to humans as Homo techno, emphasizing the transformative impact of computers on the species. The discussion touches on the physiological differences and inherited memory resulting from the interaction with devices, suggesting a continuous evolution of the human species.

Advice for Young People

In this part of the conversation, Grimes offers advice to young people, emphasizing the importance of developing creativity as a crucial life skill. She describes creativity as a muscle that requires cultivation, expressing concern that it's not emphasized enough in education. Grimes shares a personal anecdote about a talented friend who struggled to tap into his creative potential later in life due to a lack of early development in that aspect. She encourages a tolerance for failure, highlighting its role in the creative process and suggesting that it's easier to develop resilience when young. Grimes also critiques the societal tendency to punish failure and advocates for a more encouraging approach, especially in the formative years.

Meaning of Life

In the final part of the conversation, Lex Fridman asks Grimes about the meaning of life. Grimes recommends reading "Novacene" by James Lovelock, sharing Lovelock's idea that the current state of human consciousness could be the universe waking up and becoming aware of itself. Grimes suggests that humanity is part of a larger, evolving consciousness and compares the interconnectedness of social media to neurons connecting in a collective superintelligence. She envisions this as a sacred moment in the evolution of the universe.

Grimes speculates on the future, acknowledging the vulnerability of humanity but also expressing optimism about coexisting with artificial intelligence. She views consciousness, sentience, and self-awareness as significant aspects of evolution and considers the current moment as a potential true beginning of life.

The conversation concludes with Lex Fridman praising Grimes and suggesting that she explore her thoughts further, potentially through a podcast or other medium. Grimes expresses gratitude and mentions plans to collaborate with her friend Liv on such projects. The podcast ends with a quote from Oscar Wilde about dreamers and the dawn.